ABA (Applied Behavioral Analysis) - An approach in which behavioral interventions are used to build positive behaviors such as language and socialization, and to suppress unwanted behaviors such as self-stimulatory or aggressive behaviors.
Abdomen - Part of the body between the chest and the hips that contains the stomach, intestines, liver, bladder, pancreas and other organs
ACTOS - Used to increase the amount of peroxysomes produced in the cell
ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) - A condition in children who have three main kinds of problems, hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, and difficulty in paying attention.
ADOS (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) - A diagnostic tool designed to assess behaviors related to autism spectrum disorders.
Affective Disorders - Mental disorders characterized by dramatic changes or extremes of mood.
Alkaline - A substance having a pH above that of neutral water (7.0) when in solution. Signified as pH (potential of Hydrogen), alkaline fluids, such as the blood (pH about 7.4), have the ability to neutralize acids (solutions below pH 7.0). Metabolic wastes are acids, and the alkaline reserve of the blood neutralizes them until they are excreted.
Allergen - A substance, protein or nonprotein, capable of inducing allergy or specific hypersensitivity.
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) - An antioxidant that is manufactured in the human body. It is sometimes taken as a nutritional supplement or used as a chelating agent.
Alternative Communication - Another term for augmentative communication, which refers to the different ways (other than speech) that people use to communicate with each other.
Alternative Medicine - Interventions which are used alongside or instead of traditional medical treatments and therapies.
Amino Acid Therapy - The use of amino acids, usually in the form of dietary supplements, for therapeutic purposes.
Amylase - A starch-digesting enzyme.
Anti Anxiety Drugs - Class of drugs used to treat anxiety and mood disorders
Antibiotics - Class of drugs used to kill or prevent the growth of bacteria
Antibodies - Protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses.
Anticonvolsants (Antiseizure Medications, Antiepileptic Drugs) - This group of drugs is designed to prevent or reduce the severity of seizures. Medications used to control seizures, which are defined as the physical results of abnormal electrical discharges in the brain and can include convulsions, sensory disturbances, or loss of consciousness. Many of these medications are also used to stabilize mood.
Antidepressants - Medications used to treat people with depression, anxiety or other mental health problems.
Antifungal Drugs - Class of drugs used to treat fungal and yeast infections.
Antipsychotic Medications (Neuroleptics) - Psychiatric medications that are sometimes used in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders to help minimize irritability, aggression, and mood swings.
Antihistamine - Class of drugs used to treat the effects of histamine (a chemical released during allergic reactions)
Antioxidants - Class of substances, including some medications and some food supplements, used to slow or inhibit the oxidization of other chemicals
Anxiety - Condition which may include excessive worrying and agitation accompanied by physical symptoms such as rapid breathing and a fast heartbeat.
Art Therapy - Therapy which is designed to effect change and growth on a personal level through the use of art materials in a safe and facilitating environment.
Asperger Syndrome (Asperger's Syndrome, Asperger's Disorder) - A form of autistic spectrum disorder, characterized by normal or high IQ but impairments in social interactions, social communication and imagination. A developmental disorder on the autism spectrum defined by impairments in communication and social development, and by narrow interests and repetitive behaviors. Unlike individuals with typical autism, individuals with Asperger's Syndrome have no significant delay in language or cognitive development.
Auditory Integration Therapy - An intervention in which a person with autism listens to a selection of music which has been modified.
Auditory Trainer - Electronic devices that allow an individual to focus attention on a speaker and reduce the interference of background noise.
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule - Diagnostic tool designed to assess behaviors related to autism spectrum disorders.
Auditory Integration Therapy (AIT) - An intervention in which a person with autism listens to a selection of music which has been modified.
Auditory Integration Therapy Plus (AIT Plus) - Form of therapy which combines AIT with Light Therapy and Sound modulation.
Auditory Processing -
Ayurveda - Holistic system of medicine that seeks to help people achieve and maintain balance of mind, body and spirit.
Bacteria (Bacterial, Bacterium) - “Harmful" bacteria cause disease and "friendly" bacteria protect the body from harmful invading organisms.
B Cells - produce antibodies, proteins which circulate in the bloodstream, locating and identifying foreign substances, which are called antigens. When an antigen enters the body, B cells spring into action, and produce specific antibodies which attach to the antigens to form immune complexes. B cells are capable of producing a broad range of specific antibodies which identify and bind not only to disease producing viruses and fungi, but to non-disease producing antigens as well. B cells are always ready to respond to foreign substances: left to function on their own, they would continuously and indiscriminately produce antibodies to all antigens, whether harmless or dangerous.
Bile - A bitter, yellow-green secretion of the liver. Bile is stored in the gallbladder and is released when fat enters the first part of the small intestine (duodenum) in order to aid digestion.
Bioenergetic Sensitivity and Enzyme Therapy - Treatment which incorporates energetic medicine, enzyme therapy and complete food and environmental allergy elimination.
Biofeedback - Range of therapies in which individuals are taught to control their own physiological functions such as heart rate, muscle tension, and brain waves.
Biologically Based Interventions - Biologically based interventions use substances found in nature, such as herbs, foods, and vitamins
Biomedical - Biomedical interventions are a large group of complementary and alternative therapies which use substances found in nature, such as herbs, foods, and vitamins
Biopsy - Removal of a sample of tissue from a living being for diagnosis.
Bipolar Disorder- A condition that affects someone’s moods, which can swing from one extreme to another.
Blood Brain Barrier - A semi-permeable membrane separating the brain and cerebrospinal fluid from the blood. It allows small and lipid soluble molecules to pass freely but is impermeable to large or ionized molecules and cells.
Brushing Technique - Applying rapid and firm pressure touch to the arms, hands, back, legs, and feet using a surgical brush
Carbohydrates - The sugars and starches in food. Sugars are called simple carbohydrates and found in such foods as fruit and table sugar. Complex carbohydrates a re composed of large numbers of sugar molecules joined together, and are found in grains, legumes, and vegetables like potatoes, squash, and corn.
Casomorphin - A peptide produced by digestion of the milk protein casein
Celiac Disease (Gluten Sensitivity) - A digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate a protein called gluten. Common symptoms include diarrhea, increased appetite, bloating, weight loss, irritability and fatigue. Gluten is found in wheat (including spelt, triticale, and kamut), rye, barley and sometimes oats. A blood test called transglutaminase autoantibodies (IgA tTG) screens for celiac disease.
Cerebellum - Part of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor control
Chelation - Chemical means of removing heavy metals, such as mercury from the body
Chemet (DMSA) - A synthetic chemical used as a chelating agent to remove heavy metals, such as mercury, from the body.
Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) - A measure used to identify children ages 2 years and older with autism.
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder - A rare form of ASD in which a child appears to develolp normally until the age of two and then regresses.
Cholesterol - A type of fat, manufactured by the liver from the fatty foods that we eat.
Choreotherapy (Dance Movement Therapy) - A creative therapy which uses movement and dance as a means of expression and communication
Chromotherapy - Alternative therapy which uses colour and light to balance energy in the patient’s body.
Chymotrypsin (Trypsin) - A digestive enzyme secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine which breaks down polypeptides or proteins.
Crohn's Disease (Crohn's) - A chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common symptoms are abdominal pain, often in the lower right area, and diarrhea. Rectal bleeding, weight loss, and fever may also occur. Bleeding may be serious and persistent, leading to anemia.
Clay Bath - A form of chelation in which small amounts of clay are added to bathwater
Clostridia – Any of various rod-shaped, spore-forming, chiefly anaerobic bacteria of the genus Clostridium, such as the nitrogen-fixing bacteria found in soil and those causing botulism and tetanus.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy - An intervention which uses techniques to help people become more aware of how they reason, so that they can change how they think and therefore how they behave.
Colostrum - Liquid secreted by the mammary glands which is sometimes used as a nutritional supplement.
Color Therapy - Use of color to re-balance the energy centers that have become depleted of energy
Communication Board - A board which shows words, photos and/or symbols. Non-verbal or pre-verbal individuals can point to relevant items with their finger or their eyes to indicate what they mean.
Daily Life Therapy - An intervention which uses group dynamics, physical education, art, music, academic activity and vocational training.
Daily Visual Schedule - A set of pictures that communicates a series of activities or the steps of a specific activity.
Deep Pressure Therapy - Type of pressure that is exerted in most types of firm touch, such as hugging, cuddling, squeezing, stroking or holding someone
Detoxification - Removal of toxic substances from the body. Some people believe this can be achieved through a healthy balanced diet, by taking nutritional supplements and/or by using techniques such as chelation.
Developmental Delay - Significant lag in a child’s physical, cognitive, behavioral, emotional, or social development.
Developmental Reflexive Rehabilitation - A type of patterning therapy, based on a series of movement patterns which facilitate neurological feedback to the brain.
DHA - (Docosahexaenoic Acid) - A type of omega 3 fatty acid ingested in some foodstuffs such as fish oil.
Dietary Supplements - Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs and other substances meant to improve diet.
Diets - There are many people who feel that diet is a key factor in causing and/or managing some of the problems experienced by individuals with autism.
Diflucan® - Brand name for fluconazole, a type of anti-fungal medication used to treat a range of fungal infections.
Digestive Enzymes - Proteins that accelerate chemical reactions in the alimentary tract in order to break down food.
Dimethylgycine (DMG) - An amino acid found in animal and plant cells used as a food supplement.
DIR Method - The DIR method focuses on helping children to master the building blocks of relating, communicating and thinking, rather than on the symptoms of autism alone.
Discrete Trial Therapy ( Discrete Trial Training) - A highly-structured training technique that involves a trainer instructing an individual with autism using a series of learning opportunities or ‘trials’.
DMPS- A synthetic chemical used as a chelating agent to remove heavy metals, such as mercury, from the body.
DMSA- A synthetic chemical used as a chelating agent to remove heavy metals, such as mercury, from the body.
Dolphin Assisted Therapy - Specialized form of dolphin therapy which use structured programs designed to meet the needs of the individual child.
Doman Therapy - A patterning therapy based on a series of movement patterns which facilitate neurological feedback to the brain.
Dore Method or Program (Dyslexia Dyspraxia Attention Treatment) - Intervention which consists of a series of physical exercises which are designed to stimulate the brain so that it speeds up the processing of information.
Downing Technique - A form of lightwave stimulation in which an individual looks at colored light produced by a special machine called a Lumatron or a Photron Light Stimulator.
Duodenum (Duodenal) - First portion of the small intestine between the pylorus and jejunum, connecting to the stomach.
DSM-IV (The Diagnostic Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition)- Standard classification system for the five neurological disorders- Autism, Asperger’s, PDD-NOS, Rett and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. Without a listing in the DSM, it's tough to get treatment covered by insurance. And for researchers angling for grant money, a disorder's absence from the DSM makes it hard to get research funded.
Dysbiosis - Microbial imbalance
Dyslexia - Significant difficulty with or impairment in reading ability, when reading is compared with other aspects of psychological functioning.
Dyspraxia - An impairment or immaturity of the organization of movement with associated problems of language, perception and thought.
Sources: Canadian Autism Intervention Research Network